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Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Table 1 Summary of studies

From: Maximizing outcomes in the treatment of radial head fractures

Study N total Level of evidence Outcome measure Outcome score average Follow-up (mean) Mason type Complications
Ring et al. [38] 56 Prognostic II SBM 92 48 II-38
III-26
Nonunion
Iacobellis et al. [17] 32 Prognostic II DASH
MEPS
Type II-6.8
Type III-9.5
Type II-98.4
Type III-99.3
47 II-25
III-7
Heterotopic ossification (type II-1, III-3)
Nalbantoglu et al. [33] 25 Prognostic II SBM Type III-88
Type III w/dislocation-87
27 III-25 Heterotopic ossification (type III w/dislocation-3)
Ikeda et al. [20] 10 Prognostic II SBM 90.7 28.5 III-3
IV-7
None
Lindenhovius et al. [27] 13 Therapeutic III ASES
MEPS
SBM
91
92
91
17 years II-5
III-8
Early hardware loosening
Ruan et al. [41] 8 Therapeutic III SBM 12.5% satisfactory 14 III-8 Heterotopic ossification, nonunion and bone absorption
Ikeda et al. [19] 13 Therapeutic III SBM
ASES
90.7
94.6
36 III-3
IV-10
None
Zarattini et al. [52] 35 Therapeutic III SBM
DASH
95.09
2.81
125 II-35 Intraarticular screw placement-1
Chen et al. [7] 23 Therapeutic I SBM 72.4, 65.2% satisfactory 2.8 years III-23 Heterotopic ossification-2
Deep wound infection-1
ROM deficit > 30 deg-2
Businger et al. [6] 6 Therapeutic III SBM
MEPI
DASH
PCS-12
MCS-12
97
99.2
1.94
52.2
59.5
112 III-2
IV-4
Persistent pain requiring resection- 1
Lindenhovius et al. [28] 16 Therapeutic III SBM
MEPI
ASES
DASH
91
89
93
12
22 years II-16 Deep infection-1
Superficial infection-1
Transient PIN palsy-1
Restricted forearm ROM-2
Persistent pain-1
Moro et al. [30] 24 Prognostic II SF-36
DASH
MEPI
47
17
80
39 III- 10
IV- 15
None
Grewal et al. [11] 26 Therapeutic IV SF-36
 Physical
 Mental
DASH
MEPI
ASES
 Pain
 Function
 Satisfaction
PREE
41.8
51.5
24.4
80.5
13.4
27.5
9.0
22.9
24.5   Heterotopic ossification
   Stage I-4
   Stage II-1
   Stage IV-1
Ruan et al. [41] 14 Therapeutic III SBM 92.9% satisfactory 15.9 III-14 Heterotopic ossification-3
Chen et al. [7] 22 Therapeutic I SBM 92.1, 91% satisfactory 2.8 years III-22 ROM deficit > 30 deg-2
Stiffness caused by prosthesis-1
Iftimie et al. [18] 27 Therapeutic IV MEPS
DASH
VAS
96.4
4.89
0.48
16.9 years II-5
III-16
IV-6
None
Ricon et al. [35] 28 Therapeutic IV MEPS 92 32 III-28 Ulnar nerve neuropathy-1
Radiocapitellar incongruence-1
Device removal-3
Burkhart et al. [5] 17 Therapeutic IV MEPS
DASH
90.83
9.8
106   Prosthetic dislocation-2
Capitellar erosion- 3
Popovic et al. [34] 11 Therapeutic III SBM 82 32 III-11 Heterotopic ossification
 Class IIA-1
Harrington et al. [14] 20 Therapeutic IV SBM 88 12.1 years II-1
IV-13
Persistent pain- 4
Heterotopic ossification
   Stage I-3
   Stage II-2
   Stage III-3
Dotzis et al. [9] 14 Therapeutic IV MEPS
DASH
  63 III-6
IV 8
Severe complex regional pain syndrome
  1. ASES American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Score, DASH Disability of Arm Shoulder Hand, MCS-12 Mental Component Summary, MEPS Mayo Elbow Performance Score, MEPI Mayo Elbow Performance Index, PCS-12 Physical Component Summary, PREE Patient Rated Elbow Evaluation, SMB Broberg and Morrey functional rating score, SF-36 Short Form-36, VAS Visual Analog Scale
  2. Mason type is based on original Mason classification [11]