Open Access

A study of grip endurance and strengh in different elbow positions

  • A. J. Shyam Kumar1, 2Email author,
  • V. Parmar1,
  • S. Ahmed1,
  • S. Kar1 and
  • W. M. Harper1
Journal of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyOfficial Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology20089:20

DOI: 10.1007/s10195-008-0020-8

Received: 15 February 2008

Accepted: 7 June 2008

Published: 2 July 2008



The aim of our study was twofold. The first was to investigate the optimum position of the elbow while measuring grip endurance. The second was to investigate the optimum position of the elbow while measuring peak grip strength. The American Society of Hand Therapists advocate estimation of grip strength with the elbow flexed at 90° with the subject in the sitting position . As far as we are aware, there have been no reports in English literature regarding studies done to evaluate the position of the elbow while measuring grip endurance.

Materials and methods

A total of 45 healthy adults (16 males, 29 females) participated in this study. A computerised handgrip analyser was used to measure the peak strength in the non-dominant hand, followed by measurement of the grip endurance. These measurements were conducted in 90° of flexion and full extension of the elbow for each participant.


Mean endurance in flexion was 71.0 N (SD 22.9) and in extension was 68.7 N (SD 27.4). Mean peak grip strength in flexion was 262.8 N (SD 73.1) and in extension was 264.1 N (SD 82.0). T test analysis showed no statistical significance for elbow positions for grip endurance (P = 0.67) and peak gip strength (P = 0.93).


Practical implications from this study are that grip endurance training can be undertaken with the elbow in 90° of flexion or full extension.


Hand strength Physical endurance Muscle Skeletal Racquet Sports Elbow